ESS Holiday Homework Part 1
Environmentalism is the activity of protecting the environment from pollution or destruction. Environmentalism and environmental concerns are represented by the colour green.

Environmental Value Systems

Deep Ecology is a radical environmental movement and philosophy that regards humans as equal to other organisms within the global ecosystem. Deep ecology’s core principle is the belief that, like humanity, the living environment as a whole has the same right to live and flourish.

TNCs (Transnational Corporations) are firms which own or control production facilities in more than one country through direct foreign investment. In the mid-1980s, transnational corporations accounted for 14% of UK employment and 30% of UK exports.

The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times. In Europe, the Industrial Revolution of the early 1800s produced goods and services for all but this demanded the burning of large amounts of fuel in the form of trees and coal, and the mining of minerals from the earth to make machines and lime for cement.

Green Revolution refers to a series of research, development, and technology transfer initiatives, occurring between 1943 and the 1960s that increased industrialized agricultural production in India; however, the yield to increase has also occurred worldwide. The Green Revolution of the 1940s to 1960s mechanized agriculture and boosted food production massively but required the building of machinery and burning of enormous amounts of fossil fuels such as oil.

Conservationist refers to a person who advocates or strongly promotes preservation and careful management of natural resources and of the environment. A few early conservationists spoke out about the loss of “wilderness” areas but, more generally this time, the attitude of the day that was that the world contained an infinite supply of resources, a land of plenty.

Preservationist refers to a person who advocates the protection of a natural environment with minimal human intervention. “Teddy” Roosevelt worked with naturalist, John Muir, perhaps the first preservationist.

Stewardship is an ethic than embodies cooperative planning and management of environmental resources with organizations, communities and others to actively engage in the prevention of loss of habitat and facilitate its recovery in the interest of long-term sustainability. He pioneered the concept of environmental stewardship, our duty being to benefit from and protect nature.

The Modern Environmental Movement, a term that includes the conservation and green politics, is a diverse scientific, social and political movement for addressing environmental issues since the 1960s. The modern environmental movement is represented by a range of organizations, from the large to grassroots.

Intergovernmental bodies/ organisations(abbreviated IGOs)

Pressure Groups use various forms of advocacy to influence public opinion and/or policy; they have played and continue to play an important part in the development of political and social systems. There have been many significant pressure groups throughout history, including The American Israel Lobby and The British Medical Association.

NGOs (non-governmental organisations) are organisations that operate independently from the local, state or federal government. Examples of NGOs include Doctors without borders, Amnesty International, World Organisation Against Torture, Greenpeace and Oxfam.

Anthropogenic effects, processes or materials are those that are derived from human activities, as opposed to those occurring in biophysical environments without human influence. In geography and ecology, anthropization is the conversion of open spaces, landscapes and natural environments by human action.

Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson which documents the detrimental effects of pesticides on the environment, particularly on birds. Rachel Carson accused the chemical industry of spreading disinformation, and public officials of accepting industry claims uncritically. ‘Silent Spring’ was named one of the 25 greatest science books of all time by editors of Discover Magazine.

Minamata is a city located in Kumamoto, Japan. The city developed a strange disease now known as Minamata Disease, which is caused by severe mercury poisoning (1956). Mercury was present in the industrial wastewater from the Chisso Corporation’s chemical factory. As of March 21, 2,265 victims of Minamata Disease had been officially recognized.

Bhopal is the capital of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and the location of the world’s worst industrial catastrophe (2-3 December 1984). A leak of methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals from the Union Carbide India Limited plant resulted in the exposure of hundreds of thousands of people. The official immediate death toll was 2,259 and the government of Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release.

Chernobyl is a city in north central Ukraine; site of a major disaster at a nuclear power plant (26 April 1986). The disaster occurred during an unauthorized systems test and it is estimated that there may ultimately be a total of 4,000 deaths attributable to the accident, due to an increased cancer risk.

Greenpeace is a non-governmental organisation with a goal to “ensure the ablity of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity”. Greenpeace focuses on worldwide issues such as global warming, deforestation, overfishing, commercial whaling and anti-nuclear issues, and uses lobbying and research to achieve its results.

Earth Summits are conferences held every 10 years to address environmental issues with head of governments from all around the world and some heads of non-government organizations. In 1992, the Earth Summit was held in Rio de Janeiro from the 3rd to the 14th of June.

The Gaia Theory describes the earth as a single integrated system able to maintain homeostatic equilibrium ideal for life through feedback controls and able to protect itself from attack.
The Gaia Theory was originally proposed by James Lovelock and is frequently described as viewing the Earth as a single organism.

ESS Holiday Homework Part 2
Look at newspaper headlines for one week. Copy out the headlines that refer to environmental issues. Put these in a table or a notice board.

Good News
Bad News
Tuesday 11th January

Deadly torrent hits city

Water shatters resources, farming and small business

Floods not once every 100 years
Wednesday 12th January
Melbourne lauded for least water use since ‘83
Brisbane braces for disaster

Horrific images ‘spook’ a city facing the great unknown (floods)

Brisbane braces for flood disaster

‘Spooked’ city faces unknown (floods)

‘Darkness at noon lent a weird, disaster movie aesthetic to the massive leave-taking’ (floods)

Peak leaves city severed and submerged (floods)

Stunned residents relieve the horror (floods)

Risk of deadly diseases for residents (floods)

Fates conspire to concoct a recipe for disaster (floods)

Arson destroys homes as residents flee blaze

Fire and rain: the lessons of natural disasters

Building more dams is no way to prevent flood catastrophe

The clean-up job in Haiti is far from over
Thursday 13th January
Bob and his ‘ark’ deliver survivors to dry land (floods)
I tried to swim to reach my mum, but I only got halfway (floods)

Flood alert in Victoria as further deluge predicted
Friday 14th January
Help arrives for thousands (floods)
Exhausted, grieving, residents mop up and move on (floods)
All the rubbish of Ipswich but couple still feed lucky (floods)
Towns abandoned as wall of water rolls through, but wider threat eases
2010: A record wet year
Flash flooding hits Victoria

State takes two steps back on conservation

Drowning in a hot house

It’s time to talk of climate change
Saturday 15th January
Sea Shepherd in control as whalers face battle to refuel
Massive clean-up begins (floods)
Room for hope as flood waters subside
Thousands forced to leave home (floods)

Two floods in four months (floods)

Disaster expert urges a retreat from the coast

More of Australia getting hot and wet extremes

I love a sunburnt country… A land of flooding rains (floods)

Nowhere to hide from the mayhem when the river comes (floods)

Freak weather brings misery to millions

1 million flee homes after Sri Lanka monsoon

Storms kill 500 in Brazil’s worst natural disaster, toll could rise

Philippine floods, landslides destroy homes

After the deluge

Will the deluge change the face of Queensland?
Sunday 16th January

Monday 17th January