Who is involved?

Independent Pressure Groups
e.g. Greenpeace, influence the public and thus the government usually through awareness campaigns
They are also referred to as NGO's (non-government organisations)

Corporate Businesses
in particular MNC's (multi-national corporations) and TNC's (trans-national corporations) supply consumer demand and in doing so using resources and creating environmental impact

Create authoritative policies and apply legislation regarding environmental issues. Different countries are at different levels of environmental awareness but we are all aware that we must be collectively involved in finding solutions to the issues facing the Earth.

Intergovernmental Bodies
e.g. United Nations, have become highly influential in more recent times by holding summits which bring together NGO's, governments and corporations to consider environmental welfare

The growth of modern environmental movement

Neolithic Agricultural Revolution
10 000 years ago humans started to become farmers rather than nomadic hunter-gatherers. It required learning to manage local resources (water, food, fuel) sustainably around the settlement

Industrial Revolution
Over the past 200 years population growth and resource has escalated at an unprecedented. The Revolution in Europe during the 1800's produced goods and services for the masses at the expensive of land being cleared, the pollution of waterways and increased population density. This movement resulted in the arise of the urban consumer society.

Early conservationists spoke of a loss of 'wilderness' but the general idea of the time was that the world contained an infinite supply of resources.


Green Revolution
Occurred during the 1940's to 1960's, mechanised agriculture and boosted food production, generated the neccessity for new machines and enormous burning of fossil fuels. Technology was applied to agriculture for the first time however the impacts that followed resounded globally - collapsing fish stocks, endangered species, nuclear waste. The human population grew to about 3 billion over this period of time.

A new breed of environmentalists who had scientific backgrounds highlighted such impacts to the public and the idea eventually spread throughout the media, government and NGO's.

In the mid 1960's philosophers formed a new area of environmental philosophy and argued that nature had it's own intrinsic value besides its value to humans. A major shift in this field was the move from regarding the environment as a resilient, infinite provider to regarding humans as a steward responsible for caring for the environment - thus the term 'stewardship'

The Gaia Theory
the biosphere and the physical components of the Earth (atmosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere) are closely integrated to form a complex interacting systemthat maintains the climatic and biogeochemical conditions on Earth in a preferred homeorhesis

Environmental Issues in the News

Pressure Groups